The 180 Rule For Accountability
The imaginary line allows viewers to orient themselves with the position and direction of action in a scene. If a shot following an earlier shot in a sequence is located on the opposite side of the degree line, then it is called a "reverse cut". Reverse cuts disorient the viewer by presenting an opposing viewpoint of the action in a scene and consequently altering the perspective of the action and the spatial orientation established in the original shot.
There are a variety of ways to avoid confusion related to crossing the line due to particular situations caused by actions or situations in a scene that would necessitate breaking the degree line.
The movement in the scene can be altered, or cameras set up on one side of the scene so that all the shots reflect the view from that side of the degree line. Another way to allow for crossing the line is to have several shots with the camera arching from one side of the line to the other during the scene. That shot can be used to orient the audience to the fact that they are looking at the scene from another angle. In the case of movement, if a character is seen walking into frame from behind on the left side walking towards a building corner on the right, as they walk around the corner of the building, the camera can catch them coming towards the camera on the other side of the building entering the frame from the left side and then walk straight at the camera and then exit the left side of the frame.
To minimize the "jolt" between shots in a sequence on either sides of the degree line, a buffer shot can be included along the degree line separating each side. This lets the viewer visually comprehend the change in viewpoint expressed in the sequence. In professional productions, the applied degree rule is an essential element for a style of film editing called continuity editing. The rule is not always obeyed. Sometimes a filmmaker purposely breaks the line of action to create disorientation. The editor may pre-lap one or two words of dialog before the cut , so that the viewer is concentrating on what is being said and may be less likely to notice the rule-breaking cut.
Some styles used with the degree rule can elicit an emotion or create a visual rhythm.
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By moving the camera closer to the axis for a close-up shot, it can intensify a scene when paired with a long shot. In the Japanese animated picture Paprika , two of the main characters discuss crossing the line and demonstrate the disorienting effect of actually performing the action. The Secretary of Labor may, on request of the Executive Director, detail to the Office such personnel as may be necessary to advise and assist the Office in carrying out its duties under this section.
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The period from January 23, , until December 31, , shall be available to the Office of the Architect of the Capitol and other employing offices to identify any violations of subsection a , to determine the costs of compliance, and to take any necessary corrective action to abate any violations. The Office shall assist the Office of the Architect of the Capitol and other employing offices by arranging for inspections and other technical assistance at their request.
Prior to July 1, , the General Counsel shall conduct a thorough inspection under subsection e 1 and shall submit the report under subsection e 2 for the One Hundred Fourth Congress.
Except as provided in paragraph 2 , subsections a , b , c , and e 3 shall be effective on January 1, For purposes of the application under this section of the sections referred to in paragraph 1 , the term "agency" shall be deemed to include an employing office. For purposes of this section, the term "covered employee" does not include an employee of the Library of Congress, and the term "employing office" does not include the Library of Congress.
The Board may direct that the General Counsel carry out the Board's investigative authorities under this paragraph. If any person charges an employing office or a labor organization with having engaged in or engaging in an unfair labor practice and makes such charge within days of the occurrence of the alleged unfair labor practice, the General Counsel shall investigate the charge and may file a complaint with the Office. Except as provided in subsection e , the regulations issued under paragraph 1 shall be the same as substantive regulations promulgated by the Federal Labor Relations Authority to implement the statutory provisions referred to in subsection a except—.
A to the extent that the Board may determine, for good cause shown and stated together with the regulation, that a modification of such regulations would be more effective for the implementation of the rights and protections under this section; or. B as the Board deems necessary to avoid a conflict of interest or appearance of a conflict of interest.
A to the extent that the Board may determine, for good cause shown and stated together with the regulation, that a modification of such regulations would be more effective for the implementation of the rights and protections under this section; and. B that the Board shall exclude from coverage under this section any covered employees who are employed in offices listed in paragraph 2 if the Board determines that such exclusion is required because of—. A the personal office of any Member of the House of Representatives or of any Senator;.
B a standing, select, special, permanent, temporary, or other committee of the Senate or House of Representatives, or a joint committee of Congress;. F the offices of any caucus or party organization;. H such other offices that perform comparable functions which are identified under regulations of the Board. Except as provided in paragraph 2 , subsections a and b shall be effective on October 1, With respect to the offices listed in subsection e 2 , to the covered employees of such offices, and to representatives of such employees, subsections a and b shall be effective on the effective date of regulations under subsection e.
No civil penalty or punitive damages may be awarded with respect to any claim under this chapter. Except as provided in paragraph 2 , no person may commence an administrative or judicial proceeding to seek a remedy for the rights and protections afforded by this chapter except as provided in this chapter.
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Except where inconsistent with definitions and exemptions provided in this chapter, the definitions and exemptions in the laws made applicable by this chapter shall apply under this chapter. Notwithstanding paragraph 1 , provisions in the laws made applicable under this chapter other than the Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act [29 U.
This chapter shall not be construed to authorize enforcement by the executive branch of this chapter.freermomulhathor.cf
degree rule - Wikipedia
Part A of this subchapter, referred to in subsec. For complete classification of part A to the Code, see Tables. Prior to amendment, text of subsec. Every employing office shall post and keep posted in conspicuous places upon its premises where notices to covered employees are customarily posted a notice provided by the Office that—. Section effective upon expiration of the day period beginning on Dec. The study under this section shall evaluate whether the rights, protections, and procedures, including administrative and judicial relief, applicable to the entities listed in paragraph 1 of subsection a and their employees are comprehensive and effective and shall include recommendations for any improvements in regulations or legislation, including proposed regulatory or legislative language.
There is established, as an independent office within the legislative branch of the Federal Government, the Office of Congressional Workplace Rights. The Office shall have a Board of Directors. The Board shall consist of 5 individuals appointed jointly by the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the Majority Leader of the Senate, and the Minority Leaders of the House of Representatives and the Senate, who are authorized to take such steps as they consider appropriate to ensure the timely appointment of the members of the Board consistent with the requirements of this section.
Appointments of the first 5 members of the Board shall be completed not later than 90 days after January 23, Selection and appointment of members of the Board shall be without regard to political affiliation and solely on the basis of fitness to perform the duties of the Office. A vacancy on the Board shall be filled in the manner in which the original appointment was made.
Except as provided in paragraph 2 , membership on the Board shall be for 5 years. A member of the Board may be reappointed, but no individual may serve as a member for more than 2 terms. A 1 shall have a term of office of 3 years,. B 2 shall have a term of office of 4 years, and. C 2 shall have a term of office of 5 years, 1 of whom shall be the Chair,. A member of the Board may serve after the expiration of that member's term until a successor has taken office. Any member of the Board may be removed from office by a majority decision of the appointing authorities described in subsection b , but only for—.
A disability that substantially prevents the member from carrying out the duties of the member,. B incompetence,. C neglect of duty,. D malfeasance, including a felony or conduct involving moral turpitude, or. E holding an office or employment or engaging in an activity that disqualifies the individual from service as a member of the Board under subsection d 2. In removing a member of the Board, the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the President pro tempore of the Senate shall state in writing to the member of the Board being removed the specific reasons for the removal.
Each member of the Board shall be compensated, for each day including travel time during which such member is engaged in the performance of the duties of the Board, at a rate equal to the daily equivalent of the lesser of—. The rate of pay of a member may be prorated based on the portion of the day during which the member is engaged in the performance of Board duties. Members of the Board and officers and employees of the Office shall file the financial disclosure reports required under title I of the Ethics in Government Act of with the Clerk of the House of Representatives.
Subject to the rules issued by the applicable committee pursuant to paragraph 2 :. A Requirement. B Reporting. I include the amount of the covered payment or portion of the covered payment and information on the employing office involved; and. II identify each provision of part A of subchapter II that was the subject of a claim resulting in the covered payment or portion of the covered payment. C Reporting periods and dates. Not later than days after December 21, , the Committee on House Administration of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Rules and Administration of the Senate shall each issue rules establishing the content, format, and other requirements for the reporting required under paragraph 1 B i with respect to—.
B Applicability. In preparing, submitting, and publishing the reports required under paragraph 1 , the Office shall ensure that the identity or position of any claimant is not disclosed. In carrying out paragraph 3 , the Executive Director, in consultation with the Board, may make an appropriate redaction to the data included in the report described in paragraph 1 if the Executive Director, in consultation with the Board, determines that including the data considered for redaction may lead to the identity or position of a claimant unintentionally being disclosed.
The report shall note each redaction and include a statement that the redaction was made solely for the purpose of avoiding such an unintentional disclosure of the identity or position of a claimant. B Recordkeeping. The Executive Director shall retain a copy of the report described in paragraph 1 , without redactions.
In this subsection, the term "claimant" means an individual who received an award or settlement, or who made an allegation of a violation against an employing office, under part A of subchapter II. The Office shall establish and maintain a program for the permanent retention of its records, including the records of preliminary reviews, mediations, hearings, and other proceedings conducted under subchapter IV. References in Text. The Federal Regulation of Lobbying Act, referred to in subsec. The Ethics in Government Act of , referred to in subsec.
Part A of subchapter II, referred to in subsec. Prior to amendment, second sentence read as follows: "A member of the Board who is appointed to a term of office of more than 3 years shall only be eligible for appointment for a single term of office. Any reference to the Office of Compliance in any law, rule, regulation, or other official paper in effect as of such date shall be considered to refer and apply to the Office of Congressional Workplace Rights.
The Chair, subject to the approval of the Board, shall appoint and may remove an Executive Director. Selection and appointment of the Executive Director shall be without regard to political affiliation and solely on the basis of fitness to perform the duties of the Office. The first Executive Director shall be appointed no later than 90 days after the initial appointment of the Board of Directors.
The rate of pay for the Executive Director may not exceed the lesser of—. The term of office of the Executive Director shall be not more than 2 terms of 5 years, except that the first Executive Director shall have a single term of 7 years. The Executive Director shall serve as the chief operating officer of the Office. Except as otherwise specified in this chapter, the Executive Director shall carry out all of the responsibilities of the Office under this chapter.